Helge Aspevik's Continental Drift Theory

Pangea

Modern evidence

The fossils that support Wegener's theory

Glossopteris

Glossopteris found in Mongolia

Also found in Vladivostok

Lystrosaurus

Map of discovery areas, Lystrosaurus

Cynogathus

Mesosaurus

The distribution of four fossil groups from Perm and Trias

The mountain chains in Europe and Asia

What I can't get find any sense in

Wegener said that all of Central America and half of Mexico originated in recent times

Wegener cut away all of Central America and half of Mexico to match the continents

The continents extend around the center of the Earth

The coasts fit together

The continents rested together at the Equator

New Scientist, August 22, 1998 "Magnetic Traces", by Jeff Hecht

How does this fit with the Lystrosaurus fossils?

The Ediacara Biota Fauna disappears

The continental drift stopped when the land animals evolved

Astroids eradicated almost all life on Earth

summary

Reference List

Alfred Wegener's Continental Theory

Alfred Lothar Wegener was a German polar scientist, geophysicist and meteorologist, best known for what he achieved in meteorology and as a pioneer in polar research. Today however, he is mostly remembered for his theory of continental drift and the 1912 hypothesis that continents are slowly drifting around the globe. The hypothesis was controversial and not widely accepted until the 1950s, when several discoveries such as paleomagnetism provided strong support for continental drift, thereby providing a significant basis for today's model of plate tectonics.

Alfred Wegener first came up with this idea when he noticed that the earth's various, large landmasses almost fitted together like a puzzle. America's continental shelf was well suited to Africa and Europe, and Antarctica, Australia, India and Madagascar fitted in at the tip of South Africa. He launched the theory of the "continental operation" existence in 1912, arguing that all continents once hung together in a single landmass and had gradually drifted apart. He assumed that the mechanism that caused the drift was the centrifugal force of the earth's rotation.

In his work, Wegener presented a large amount of observational evidence supporting continental drift, but the theory still had gaps, in part because Wegener's calculations of the continental movement velocity, 250 cm a year, were too high. (The current approved assessment for dividing America from Europe and Africa is about 2.5 cm per year.)

Despite the gaps, this theory recognized Wegner as the founder of one of the greatest scientific revolutions of the nineteenth century.

When the Global Positioning System (GPS) was implemented, it became possible to measure continental operations directly. [1]

The theory of plate tectonics was formulated in the years 1965-1968. Plate tectonics tries to explain and understand large-scale movements in the earth's crust and seabed dispersion. The theory tells us that the Earth is divided into seven large and a number of smaller plates that move relative to each other.[2]

Wikipedia
Wikipedia

Pangea

Today's model is based on the original model presented by Wegener in 1912. The continents rests together from pole to pole, on one side of the Earth.

Modern evidence

More evidence of continental movement on tectonic plates is now extensive. Similar plant and animal fossils have been found around the coast of different continents, suggesting that they were once linked. The fossils of Mesosaurus, a freshwater reptile, or rather a small crocodile, found both in Brazil and South Africa, are one example. Another is the discovery of fossils of the land reptile Lystrosaurus found in rocks of the same age in places in Africa, India and Antarctica. There is also evidence that the same animals are found on two continents. Some earthworm families (such as Ocnerodrilidae, Acanthodrilidae, Octochaetidae) have been found in South America and Africa.

The complementary disposition and arrangement of the sides of South America and Africa is obvious, but a temporary coincidence. For millions of years, traction plates, thrust plate force, and other tectonophysical forces will further separate and rotate these two continents. It was the temporary function that inspired Wegener to study what he defined as continental drift, although he did not live long enough to see his hypothesis become generally accepted.

The widespread distribution of Permian carbon glacial sedimentsin South America, Africa, Madagascar, Arabia, India, Antarctica and Australia was one of the most important evidence for the theory of continental drift. The continuity of glaciers that could be read from the erosion form in glaciers and deposits called scouring stripes in the rocks helped to establish the existence of the supercontinent Gondwanaland, which became a key element of theconcept of continental drift. The scouring stripes indicate that the glacier is drifting away from the equator and toward the poles, based on the continents' current positions and orientations, and supported the idea that the southern continents that had previously been in dramatically different places were now connected. [4]

The fossils that support Wegener's theory

Glossopteris

Lystrosaurus

Cynogathus

Mesosaurus


Glossopteris

Glossopteridales originated in the southern hemisphere around the beginning of the Permian period (298.9 million years ago), but were eradicated during the end of the Permian Triassic extinction. Their distribution over several, now detached, separated land masses, led Eduard Suess, to suggest that the southern continents were once merged into a single supercontinent Pangea. These plants continued to be the dominant elements of the southern flora throughout the rest of Perm, but disappeared in almost all places at the end of Perm (251 902 million years ago). [5]

Today's countries and continents that made up Gondwana included: South America Africa Madagascar India Antarctic Australia. Note that fossil remains of Glossopteris, in green on the map, have been found in most land masses that once formed Gondwana. [5]
Today's countries and continents that made up Gondwana included: South America Africa Madagascar India Antarctic Australia. Note that fossil remains of Glossopteris, in green on the map, have been found in most land masses that once formed Gondwana. [5]

Glossopteris found in Mongolia

Leading researcher, Professor S. V. Naugolnykh, at the Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geology also points to the discovery of the plant in Mongolia. "Well-preserved leaves in accordance with the Glossopteris fossil genus are found in perm deposits (depots) of southeastern Gobi and Khatan-Bulag locally in Mongolia. These leaves have many features in common with Glossopteris communis, which Feistmantel described from India. belongs to Sulinkheer's tectonic main zone.

Glossopteris sp. Professor S. V. Naugolnykh claims that the G. communis specimens from Khatan-Bulag indicate that there was an efficient migration port between Gondwanaland and the southern regions of Asia in the middle of Perm. [10]

Glossopteris in Vladivostok. Drifting Continents and Shifting Theories By H. E. Le Grand, Homer Eugene LeGrand[11]
Glossopteris in Vladivostok. Drifting Continents and Shifting Theories By H. E. Le Grand, Homer Eugene LeGrand[11]

The Vladivostok discoveries

In 1967, there was also a report on Glossopteri's discoveries near Vladivostok in eastern Russia. This claim does not yet appear to have been confirmed

Lystrosaurus (wikipedia)
Lystrosaurus (wikipedia)

Lystrosaurus

Meaning: "Spade lizard" lived around 250 million years ago in the early Triassic. Remains have been found in what is now Antarctica, India, China and South Africa. It was a herbivore the size of a pig. Lystrosaurus had two smile-like teeth and a squat position with strong limbs, a mammal-like reptile that laid eggs. Lystrosaurus was common across the continents that formed Gondwanaland. [5]

Cynogathus

Cynognathus is an extinct genus of large syncodontic therapsids that lived in the Middle Triassic. It is known from a single species, Cynognathus crateronotus. Cynognathus was a 1.2 meter long predator closely related to mammals and had a southern hemispherical distribution. Fossils have so far been recovered from South Africa, Argentina, Antarctica and Namibia. [6]

Mesosaurus

Mesosaurus is an extinct genus of an early Permian reptile in southern Africa and South America. [7]

The distribution of four fossil groups from Perm and Trias

The distribution of four fossil groups in Perm and Triassic is used as biographical evidence for continental and land bridges. The areas of Cynognathus are marked with red. [6]

A wide belt with high, geologically young mountain chains dominates the map image [8]
A wide belt with high, geologically young mountain chains dominates the map image [8]

The moutain formations in Europe and Asia

According to plate tectonics, such rock/mountain formations occur when the continents collide. The heavier sea plates are pushed into the earth's interior, folded and this melts to form new rock formations and mountain chains. The greater the collision between the different continents, the greater the rock formations

What I can`t make any sense of

In 1988, I started to study Alfred Wegener´s theory. I wanted to learn as much as possible about the subject, so I bought a big school map, found a pair of scissors and cut out the continents. Then I tried to put them together as Wegener described, but I had great trouble getting the countries to fit together. Wherever I turned them, Africa was in the way. I also began to look at the great mountain formations in Europe and Asia and had to conclude that Africa and India must have drifted from somewhere else to create such large mountain formations. For the drifting to cause such enourmous rock formations, the largest rock formations in the world, Its logic to think that they must have drifted over great distances. Therfore I took Africa away from the map and then it was easy to bring North America and Europe together. My conclusion was that this country Wegener called Gondwanaland was quite correctly put together, and that Africa was part of this. Therefore, I had to try to move this so that I could put North America and Europe together without conflict. It was a while before I discovered what Wegener had done to make this fit, and before that time I had cut a lot of maps in all variants. I'll tell you a little about how Wegener made the continents fit together.

Wegener claimed that all of Central America and half of Mexico originated in recent times

On the lower part of this map I have drawn, we see his claim, that Central America and half of Mexico originated in recent times. Here, Africa is located in Laurasia, which I think makes these huge mountain ranges stretching all over Europe and China difficult to explain.

Wegener cut away all of Central America and half of Mexico to make the continents fit together


Let us take a look at this land area that I have highlighted on the map above. You see below that here you will find the oldest rocks on Earth, which indicates that these lands cannot be cut away. Thus, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica has to be placed in a way where we can retain these territories and explain the collision with Europe and Asia. I choose to follow the subduction zones in the Pacific, as this is the only place I find a vacancy. Then I see that South America is starting to revolve around an axis centered on Central America.


A = Rocks in the pre-Cambrian period from 3.9 billion to 600 million years ago.

B = Rocks in from Carbon / Perm. 350 - 225 million years ago.

C = Triassic / Jurassic / Cretaceous. 225 - 65 million years ago.

D = Tertiary. 65 million years ago and until today.

The continents extend around the center of the Earth


There are several theories that try to explain why Sahara is desert today. One theory trying to explain the formation of the Sahara is that the monsoon in North Africa was weakened by ice formation during the Quaternary period, which started two or three million years ago. Another theory is that the monsoon was weakened when the ancient Tethys Sea dried up during the Tortonian period about 7 million years ago. So by turning the whole of Alfred Wegener's Gondwanaland around that axis, something remarkable happens. At one point, the northern part of Africa becomes upright and becomes the southern point of the continents. I choose to follow this axis until something amazing happens. Land areas lie around the Equator and not from pole to pole, and North America and Europe can be brought together. This reminds me of the Midgard worm from Norrøn mythology, where it lay around the middle of the Earth and bit itself in the tail, so I choose to call this continuous continent the "Midgard", for the pleasure of it.

The coastlines fits together

Using Google Earth, I created a simple map to illustrate how the North American coast fits in with the South American coast. It is also worth noting that the continental shelf in North America extends inward, similar to the South American continental shelf tilts outward. On the map, these become approximately parallel to each other.

The continents rested together at the Equator

Africa is becoming the southernmost point of this continuous continent and my calculations tell me that the whole of Gondwanaland must have been detached for some reason, so that Gondwanaland came so far south on the globe that one can explain the amount of ice in the Sahara. It becomes more and more obvious to think that the continent was divided by some kind of disaster.

New Scientist, August 22, 1998 "Magnetic Tracks", by Jeff Hecht

A re-analysis of old measurements of these fields has forced geologists to conclude that either the migration of the continents has been gathered closer to the equator than previously thought, or the Earth's magnetic field has not been a single pair, as it is today.

According to these measurements described in New Scientist August 22, 1998, the continents have most likely been formed by the Equator. The entire article can be read here: https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg15921483.500-magnetic-shift.html

These lands marked on the map I have drawn here, are around 545 million years old. They originated approximately when the Ediacara Fauna was eradicated. I have drawn an X where I think an asteroid must have collided with the earth. Fossils are marked in red
These lands marked on the map I have drawn here, are around 545 million years old. They originated approximately when the Ediacara Fauna was eradicated. I have drawn an X where I think an asteroid must have collided with the earth. Fossils are marked in red

The Ediacara Biota Fauna disappears

These fossils, which were in the form of jellyfish, strange worms and coral animals, lived for approx. 545 million years ago. They were named "Ediacara Biota" after the first discovery site in Australia. What characterizes them is that they were molluscs that were suddenly buried alive in the sand. They have also been found in high mountains, which I have found a bit strange. By marking these areas of discovery on my maps, I see a pattern, which lies mainly in a semi-circle over the continents. Which makes me think that an Asteroid must have hit north of Alaska about 545 million years ago, so that the Ediacara Biota were buried in water and in sand. When I study the rocks north of Alaska, I see that they contain a huge amount of rocks from this period as well, which reinforces my thesis that there had to have been an Asteroid hit, and as a result, these animals were buried in sand, while the continents kicked and split and began to drift. Soon after, we saw a rapid development in the animal and plant life.


Asteroids destroy almost all life on Earth

50 million years ago, before the dinosaurs' time on Earth, an asteroid hit Earth again. The continents is starting to drift once more, at the same time as this asteroid hit eradicates most of life on Earth. I believe that what is today Japan is a consequence of Gondwanaland starting to disengage from Russia / China. The coastlines are remarkably parallel to each other. 2600 kilometers west of Russia is one of the oldest subsurface areas known today. This seabed is about 175 million years old. If you trace 175 million years from 250 million years ago, you get 75 million years from operations started to the coast of Australia passing this area and leaving a new seabed. This will correspond to the speed of continental drift as the plates move today where the plates move from 3 to 10 cm per year. I then get an drifting speed of Gondwanaland of 3.46 cm a year. If we look at the distance when Australia was at Vladivostok and up to where Australia is today, the continent will have drifted about 8 cm a year, which corresponds to the drifting of continental plates today as well. Today Australia drifts about 7 cm a year.

175 million years old seabed

The area marked with a red ring is about 175 years old. According to my theory, Gondwanaland drifted about 3.46 cm a year, and this occurred when Gondwanaland loosened from Russia / China. some 250 million years ago. [13]

Summary

I imagine this happened: Originally, Australia was located in eastern Siberia, but became divided when the Ediacara fauna lived 542 million years ago. These animals were buried alive in sand around the world. This can only be the result of collision with an asteroid.

The collision divided the continents and they began to drift, Eurasia moves eastwards, resulting the drifting to come to a pause when these two continents meet again. This is, as the fossile findings confirm, Status Quo until 250 million years ago. Then a larger asteroid hits the oceans somewhere, and the drifting starts again. In addition, the volcanic activity increases. This last hit eradicates most of life on the planet 250 million years ago, long before the dinosaurs arose. Less than 5 percent of the species of the sea animals survived. The continents, as I said, starts to drift again. This time, Gondwanaland is drifting west, away from Russia / China at this time.

Large parts of the continent drift through or near the Antarctic regions and Antarctica stabilizes at the South Pole, while the remaining continents drift on and hit Europe and Asia. South America's drifting comes to a halt, and gradually begins to drift north toward Equator due to centrifugal force.

Reference list

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Wegener
[2] https://www.geoforskning.no/nyheter/97-alfred-wegener-kontinentaldriftens-far
[3] https://no.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fil:Pangaea_continents.svg
[4] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Continental_drift

[5] https://www.monash.edu/science/schools/earth-atmosphere-environment/primesci/sci-expo/wildlife-of-gondwana/gondwana
[6] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cynognathus

[7] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesosaurus

[8] https://diercke.westermann.de/content/west-und-s%C3%BCdasien-physisch-100750-124-1-0
[9] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plate_tectonics
[10] https://www.researchgate.net/publication/321335729_A_new_discovery_of_Glossopteris_in_southeastern_Mongolia_as_an_argument_for_distant_migration_of_Gondwanan_plants
[11] https://books.google.no/books?id=2A34v-TF5YMC&pg=PA78&lpg=PA78&dq=glossopteris+misidentifications&source=bl&ots=_t1uzFE0bH&sig=ACfU3U2ZNYxwBe2R5t6sHx3Xb3fQ_qBpwQ&hl=no&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiXup6l8J7lAhWiAxAIHcZsALI4ChDoATACegQICBAB#v=onepage&q=glossopteris%20misidentifications&f=false

[12] https://books.google.no/books?id=V8fDgs0QnBAC&pg=PA61&lpg=PA61&dq=Knocklofty+lystrosaurus&source=bl&ots=RyBy0fzYW6&sig=ACfU3U1ABaJumyJ5S4M1v6HDaarUULNVrg&hl=no&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiejZropqPlAhUMmYsKHZf5AYsQ6AEwCnoECAYQAQ#v=onepage&q=Knocklofty%20lystrosaurus&f=false
[13] https://www.ngu.no/emne/aktive-plategrenser